congenitaldisease:

Decellularization is a tissue engineering technique designed to strip out the cells from a donor organ, leaving nothing but connective tissue that used to hold the cells in place. This scaffold of connective tissue - called a "ghost organ" for its pale and almost translucent appearance - can then be reseeded with a patient’s own cells, with the goal of regenerating an organ that can be transplanted into the patient without fear of tissue rejection.This is in the experimental stage.

congenitaldisease:

Decellularization is a tissue engineering technique designed to strip out the cells from a donor organ, leaving nothing but connective tissue that used to hold the cells in place. This scaffold of connective tissue - called a "ghost organ" for its pale and almost translucent appearance - can then be reseeded with a patient’s own cells, with the goal of regenerating an organ that can be transplanted into the patient without fear of tissue rejection.This is in the experimental stage.

(via zygoma)

nemfrog:

Nerves and lymphatic system. Manual for magnetizing. 1845.

nemfrog:

Nerves and lymphatic system. Manual for magnetizing. 1845.

(via zygoma)

sixpenceee:

And here they are:
Thermoception:  Ability to sense heat and cold. Thermoceptors in the brain are used for monitoring internal body temperature.
Proprioception: The sense of where your body parts are located relevant to each other. 
Chronoception: Sense of the passing of time. Your body has an internal clock. 
Equilibrioception:  The sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. 
Magentoception:  This is the ability to detect magnetic fields. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. 
Tension Sensors:  These are found in such places as your muscles and allow the brain the ability to monitor muscle tension.
Nociception:  In a word, pain.  This was once thought to simply be the result of overloading other senses, such as “touch”, but it has it’s own unique sensory system.  There are three distinct types of pain receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral (body organs).
SOURCE

sixpenceee:

And here they are:

Thermoception:  Ability to sense heat and cold. Thermoceptors in the brain are used for monitoring internal body temperature.

Proprioception: The sense of where your body parts are located relevant to each other. 

Chronoception: Sense of the passing of time. Your body has an internal clock. 

Equilibrioception:  The sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. 

Magentoception:  This is the ability to detect magnetic fields. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. 

Tension Sensors:  These are found in such places as your muscles and allow the brain the ability to monitor muscle tension.

Nociception:  In a word, pain.  This was once thought to simply be the result of overloading other senses, such as “touch”, but it has it’s own unique sensory system.  There are three distinct types of pain receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral (body organs).

SOURCE

(via sixpenceee)

sweetdeffect:

Apert syndrome is a type of acrocephalosyndactyly, a congenital disorder characterized by deformities of the skull, face, hands and feet. Is usually classified as a branchial arch syndrome, affecting the first gill arch; that in humans is a precursor of the maxilla and mandible.

sweetdeffect:

Apert syndrome is a type of acrocephalosyndactyly, a congenital disorder characterized by deformities of the skull, face, hands and feet. Is usually classified as a branchial arch syndrome, affecting the first gill arch; that in humans is a precursor of the maxilla and mandible.

malformalady:

Raynaud’s is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body.Raynaud’s sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. The disorder is marked by brief episodes of vasospasm , which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynaud’s, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynaud’s, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.
Photo credit: nicolewade14

malformalady:

Raynaud’s is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to different parts of your body.Raynaud’s sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. The disorder is marked by brief episodes of vasospasm , which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynaud’s, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynaud’s, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.

Photo credit: nicolewade14

(via sweetdeffect)

sweetdeffect:

Juliana Wetmore is a girl with Teacher-Collins syndome. Since she was born, has undergone more than 40 operations to improve their appearance and quality of life.

sweetdeffect:

Juliana Wetmore is a girl with Teacher-Collins syndome. Since she was born, has undergone more than 40 operations to improve their appearance and quality of life.

(via sweetdeffect)

malformalady:

Harpy eagles have enormous talons that are used to snatch monkeys and sloths from trees. Their back talons are larger than grizzly bear claws! With feet that are able to exert several hundred pounds of pressure, they instantly kill their prey by crushing their bones.

malformalady:

Harpy eagles have enormous talons that are used to snatch monkeys and sloths from trees. Their back talons are larger than grizzly bear claws! With feet that are able to exert several hundred pounds of pressure, they instantly kill their prey by crushing their bones.

s-c-i-guy:

Rewritten in Blood
A modified gene-editing technique corrects mutations in human hematopoietic stem cells.
Targeted gene editing is an experimental therapeutic approach that avoids the risk of insertional mutagenesis associated with the more traditional gene-therapy method of adding a functional gene copy to cells. In gene editing, special nuclease enzymes, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), are directed to cut the mutant gene of interest, and a replacement piece of DNA—containing the desired sequence—is then integrated by means of the cell’s own homology-directed repair pathway.
While the approach has been used to correct mutations in a variety of cell lines, attempts to edit genes in human primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)—important targets for treating a number of inherited blood disorders—have proved unsuccessful.
“The real hurdle was to achieve gene editing in cells relevant for [clinical] translation,” says Luigi Naldini of the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan. The challenge is that homology-directed repair requires cells to be cycling, and, for the most part, HSCs are quiescent. Stimulating HSCs to divide induces differentiation, however, so the team “fine-tuned the conditions” to both expand HSCs and maintain their undifferentiated state, Naldini explains. These tweaks have now allowed his team to use ZFNs to rewrite a disease-causing mutation in HSCs from a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID).
The group successfully repaired between 3 percent and 11 percent of the patient’s HSCs. While that may not sound like many cells, “it’s pretty exciting,” says Harry Malech of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases who was not involved in the study, because “it’s encouraging that you can do it at all.”
Improving the efficiency may be necessary to fix certain blood-based disorders, says Malech, but he adds that “for diseases like X-linked SCID … the goal can be quite low” because the corrected stem cells will likely be able to expand once inside the patient.
source

s-c-i-guy:

Rewritten in Blood

A modified gene-editing technique corrects mutations in human hematopoietic stem cells.

Targeted gene editing is an experimental therapeutic approach that avoids the risk of insertional mutagenesis associated with the more traditional gene-therapy method of adding a functional gene copy to cells. In gene editing, special nuclease enzymes, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), are directed to cut the mutant gene of interest, and a replacement piece of DNA—containing the desired sequence—is then integrated by means of the cell’s own homology-directed repair pathway.

While the approach has been used to correct mutations in a variety of cell lines, attempts to edit genes in human primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)—important targets for treating a number of inherited blood disorders—have proved unsuccessful.

“The real hurdle was to achieve gene editing in cells relevant for [clinical] translation,” says Luigi Naldini of the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan. The challenge is that homology-directed repair requires cells to be cycling, and, for the most part, HSCs are quiescent. Stimulating HSCs to divide induces differentiation, however, so the team “fine-tuned the conditions” to both expand HSCs and maintain their undifferentiated state, Naldini explains. These tweaks have now allowed his team to use ZFNs to rewrite a disease-causing mutation in HSCs from a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID).

The group successfully repaired between 3 percent and 11 percent of the patient’s HSCs. While that may not sound like many cells, “it’s pretty exciting,” says Harry Malech of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases who was not involved in the study, because “it’s encouraging that you can do it at all.”

Improving the efficiency may be necessary to fix certain blood-based disorders, says Malech, but he adds that “for diseases like X-linked SCID … the goal can be quite low” because the corrected stem cells will likely be able to expand once inside the patient.

source

(via alpha-canismajoris)